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Anglo Saxon Royalty & Time-Line

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The Royals
Early Northumbria comprised two kingdoms: Bernicia and Deira. A king of one of these kingdoms frequently claimed rule over all Northumbria, with the king of the other kingdom being perhaps a sub - king. Later Northumbria was one kingdom under one king.
Kings of Bernicia Kings of Deira Kings of Northumbria

Rheged Deira Bernicia THE EAST SEAXE The Cantware The Suth Seaxe The West Seaxe East Angles The Lindisware Mercia Middle Angles Elmet Rheged Bryneich Gododdin Durotricia Glastening Dumnonia

Kings of Bernicia
Bernicia was a kingdom in England during the 6th century AD. It later merged with the kingdom of Deira to form the kingdom of Northumbria.
Its territory is said to have stretched from the Tyne northwards, ultimately reaching the Firth of Forth, while its western frontier was gradually extended westward, encroaching on the Cumbric speaking kingdoms of Rheged, Gododdin and Dunbarton.

The chief royal residence was Bamburgh, and near it was the island of Lindisfarne, which became the see of a bishop.

The first king of whom we have any record is Ida, who is said to have obtained the throne about 547. Aethelfrith, king of Bernicia, united Deira to his own kingdom, probably about 605, and the union continued under his successor Edwin, son of Ælla or Ella, king of Deira.

Bernicia was again separate from Deira under Eanfrith, son of Aethelfrith (633?634), after which date the kings of Bernicia were supreme in Northumbria, though for a short time under Oswiu Deira had a king of its own.

Bernicia was written about by Bede in his Historia Ecclesiastica.

Year Name

Notes

around 500 Esa Probably settled his people in the area as foederati.
around 520
Eoppa Son of Esa.
547 - 559

Ida

First king of Bernicia. Given Ida's date of death of 559, it seems highly probable that one of two circumstances are true: that he took a hand in the initial uprising and may have led the first assaults on Ebrauc; or that he was against fighting his British neighbours, and the Anglians had to wait until his son acceded the throne before they found someone willing to lead them into battle.


559 - 579 Aethelric Son of Ida.
570 - 571

Glappa

Son of Ida.
571 - 579

Adda

Son of Ida.
579 - 586 Hussa Fought against Urien Rheged & Elmet's northern coalition.
586 - 593 Theobald /
Theoderic
Died 603.
593 - 616 Æthelfrith Son of Æthelric. King of Northumbria (593 - 604). He defeated the Scots, British, and Irish at Daegsastane (603), and defeated the Welsh in a great battle near Chester (607). He was defeated and killed by Redwald of East Anglia in 617 .
c.613 South Rheged falls to the Northumbrian Bernicians.
616 - 632
Edwin of Deira Son of Aelle. Bretwalda.
c.616 Edwin forces the collapse of the British kingdom of North Rheged, although some of it survives and continues as an isolated enclave. He also conquers Ynys Manau.
617 Edwin conquers the British kingdom of Elmet.
c.620 - c.658 The increasingly powerful Bernician / Deiran throne begins to dominate the Lindisware.
632/3 The increasingly powerful Bernician / Deiran throne begins to dominate the Lindisware.
632/3 Edwin is killed by Penda of Mercia while the latter is allied to Cadwallon, king of Gwynedd, and High King of the Britons.
632 - 633
Eanfrid Son of Ethelfrith. Heathen.
633 Ynys Manau is lost.
633 - 641 Oswald (St.) Ruled a united Northumbria, conquered Lothian, and Bretwalda.
634 Oswald defeats High King Cadwallon at Heavenfield, thus removing any British claims to the conquered Elmet.
641 - 654

Oswy

Also Oswiu, Osuiu, Oswio, Osguid, Osweus, Oswius. Younger son of Æthelfrith and brother of Oswald. He became king of Bernicia on the death of his brother Oswald in 641. He married the daughter of Edwin. He had constant wars with Penda of Mercia and the Britons, and defeated and killed Penda – together with Æthelhere and 30 other princes and kings – in 654. He invaded Deira in 651, and slew Oswine, after whose death he ruled all Northumbria (651 - 70), and gained supremacy over all Mercia, the South Angles, East Angles, and East Saxons, as well as many Britons and Scots, He was the 7th Bretwalda of the Anglo - Saxon Chronicle. He probably ruled the Britons of Alclyde and Scots of Dalriada, and is said to have subjugated the Picts. About 653, he gave Peada, king of the Middle Angles, his daughter in marriage conditionally on his acceptance of Christianity. His daughter Osthryth married Æthelred, and Alhflaed married Peada. He presided at the Synod of Whitby.
654 Oswiu cemented what was becoming increasingly accepted in the union of Deira with Bernicia to create a single kingdom of the Angles north of the Humber, known, as with most Anglo-Saxon kingdoms, by it's geographical location in relation to the other early English kingdoms - Northumbria.

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Kings of Deira
Deira (from Brythonic "Deifr", meaning "waters" and pronounced Deywr in the Celtic tongue) was a kingdom in England during the 6th century AD. It later merged with the kingdom of Bernicia (Brythonic, "Brynaich") to form the kingdom of Northumbria.

According to Simeon of Durham it extended from the Humber to the Tyne, but the land was waste north of the Tees. York was the capital of its kings.

The date of its first settlement is quite unknown, but the first king of whom we have any record is Ælla. After his death Deira was subject to king Æthelfrith of Northumbria until the accession of Ælla's son Edwin, in 616 or 617, who ruled both kingdoms till 633.

Osric, the nephew of Edwin, ruled Deira (633?634), but his son Oswine was put to death by Oswiu in 651. For a few years subsequently Deira was governed by Aethelwald son of Oswald.

Bede wrote of Deira in his Historia Ecclesiastica.

559/60 - 588

Aelle

He was murdered by Ragnar Lothbrok, the Dane, in a great battle near York. He was succeeded by his son Edwin.
588 - 593 Edwin Son of Aelli. Forced out by Ethelfrith.
593 - 616

Æthelric

 
616 - 632
Edwin Restored after taking control of Bernicia and returning to Deira.
c.616 Edwin forces the collapse of the British kingdom of North Rheged, although some of it survives and continues as an isolated enclave. He also conquers Ynys Manau.
617 Edwin conquers the British kingdom of Elmet.
c.620 - c.658 The increasingly powerful Bernician / Deiran throne begins to dominate the Lindisware.
632/3 Edwin is killed at Hatfield Chase by Penda of Mercia while the latter is allied to Cadwallon, king of Gwynedd, and High King of the Britons.
632 - 633

Osric

Son of Elfric. Succeeded Edwin as king of Northumbria.
633 - 641 Oswald of Bernicia  
644 - 651

Oswine

Aka St Oswin. Son of Osric became King of Deira when Northumbria was divided into Bernicia and Deira. He was killed when Oswy invaded Deira in 651. Ruled until 20th August.
651 - 654

Æthelwald

Son of Oswald. Ruled until or after Nov 654.

654 Deira falls under Bernician control and a united Northumbria is created.

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Kings of Northumbria

Northumbria was one of the Anglo - Saxon kingdoms in England, named from lying north of the River Humber.

Northumbria was originally composed of the union of two independent kingdoms, Bernicia and Deira.

King Edwin of Deira (616 - 32) accepted Christianity in 627 and was Bretwalda of England from 627 - 632.

593 - 604

Æthelfrith

Also Æthelfrid, Edilfrid. Son of Æthelric. Succeeded Hussa as king of Bernicia (592 - 617), and was also king of Northumbria. He defeated the Scots, British, and Irish at Daegsastane (now Dawstone), and defeated the Welsh in a great battle near Chester. He was defeated and killed by Redwald of East Anglia. He was the father of Oswy.
585 - 633

Edwin

Also Eadwine. Son of Aella. On his father's death in 588, he fled before Æthelric of Bernicia, conqueror of Deira, to Ceorl of Mercia, and subsequently sought asylum with Redwald, king of East Anglia, in 617. Redwald defeated and killed Æthelfrith, in 617, and Edwin succeeded Æthelfrith as king of Deira, and, annexing Bernicia and neighbouring territory, formed the united Northumbrian kingdom and extended his power in all directions, becoming overlord of the whole of England except Kent. He was bretwalda. In 625, he married Æthelburh, sister of Eadbald, king of Kent. In 626, he survived an assassination attempt by Eomer, a West Saxon, and promised to give his baby daughter to God if Paulinus's prayers will enable him to overthrow the enemy who sent Eomer. St Paulinus preached a sermon at Heptonstall in an effort to persuade Edwin to accept Christianity. He went into Wessex and killed many West Saxons. His daughter was baptised on Whit Sunday 626 by Paulinus at York. At Easter 627, Edwin was baptised. He captured and fortified Edinburgh, which was named after him. In 632, he was killed along with his son Osfrith at the Battle of Rowley Burn with Penda and Cadwallon, and was succeeded by Osric.
633 Osric Son of Elfric. Succeeded Edwin as king of Northumbria.
634 - 642

Oswald

King of Northumbria from 634, after killing the Welsh king Cadwallon. He became a Christian convert during exile on the Scottish island of Iona. With the help of St Aidan, he spread Christianity in northern England. Wilfrid began his education of Oswald's court. He was defeated and killed by Penda in a battle at Maserfield (Oswestry). He was buried at Bardney. He was canonised after his death.

654 - 670

Oswiu

Also Oswiu, Osuiu, Oswio, Osguid, Osweus, Oswius. Younger son of Æthelfrith and brother of Oswald. He became king of Bernicia [642 - 670] on the death of his brother Oswald in 641. He married the daughter of Edwin. He had constant wars with Penda of Mercia and the Britons, and defeated and killed Penda – together with Æthelhere and 30 other princes and kings – in 654. He invaded Deira in 651, and slew Oswine, after whose death he ruled all Northumbria [651 - 70], and gained supremacy over all Mercia, the South Angles, East Angles, and East Saxons, as well as many Britons and Scots, He was the 7th Bretwalda of the Anglo - Saxon Chronicle. He probably ruled the Britons of Alclyde and Scots of Dalriada, and is said to have subjugated the Picts. About 653, he gave Peada, king of the Middle Angles, his daughter in marriage conditionally on his acceptance of Christianity. His daughter Osthryth married Æthelred, and Alhflaed married Peada. He presided at the Synod of Whitby.
670 - 685

Egfrith

Succeeded his father, Oswiu, as king of Northumbria. His image appeared on early coins. In 678, he forced bishop Wilfrid from his bishopric. He was succeeded by his brother Eldfrith. He was the second husband of St Ætheldreda
c.675 - c.679 The Northumbrians dominate the Lindisware.
685 - 704

Aldfrith

Probable bastard son of Oswiu. Ruled May 685 - 14th Dec 704.
685 Alcfrith was the great-grandson of Rhoedd map Rhun map Urien Rheged, and inherited the remains of North Rheged (possibly long before he gained the Northumbrian throne).
704 - 705

Eardwulf I

He succeeded Aldfrith as king of Northumbria. His descent is uncertain. See Osred I, Battle of Bamburgh.
705 - 716 Osred I Son of Aldfrith. He was king of Northumbria at the age of 9. Ruled from December 704 or early 705. He defeated the usurper, Eadwulf, at the Battle of Bamburgh. Killed by Cenred.
716 - 718

Coenred / Cenred

He succeeded Osred as king of Northumbria.
718 - 729
Osric Ruled until 9th May.
737 - 758 Eadbert He became a monk and was succeeded by his son, Oswulf.
758 Oswulf He succeeded his father, Eadbert, as king of Northumbria, and was killed by his household shortly afterwards.
729 - 737

Ceolwulf

He succeeded Osric as king of Northumbria (729 - 737). He was dethroned and restored in 731, abdicated in 737 and became a monk at Lindisfarne. Bede dedicated his Historia Ecclesiastica to him. As St Ceolwulf, his St day is 15th January.
737 - 758 Eadbert / Eadbriht  
758 Oswulf / Osulf / Oswald Son. Murdered.
758 - 765

Æthelwold Moll

From 5th August to 30th October.
765 - 774 Alchred / Alhred At Easter, 774, the people drove him from York, and took Æthelred I as their lord.
774 - 779

Æthelred I

Son of Æthelwold Moll. Departed throne. When Alhred was driven from York, he became king of Northumbria - and again in 790 - 796.
779 - 788 Elfwald / Alfwold I King of Northumbria. First reign.
788 - 790
Osred II Exiled. d.792.
790 - 796 Æthelred I Restored to throne. Ruled until April.
796
Osbald  
796 - 806
Eardwulf Ruled from 26th May. Departed throne.
806 - 808 Elfwold II  
?808 Eardwulf II Returned to throne.
808 - 840
Eanred  
840 - 844
Ethelred II Departed throne.
844 Redwulf  
844 - 849
Ethelred II Restored to throne.
849 - 862 Osbert / Osbriht Deposed by Ælla. Died 867 alongside Ælla.
862 - 867
Ælla / Ella King of Deira 863. He was murdered by Ragnar Lothbrok, the Dane, in a great battle near York. He was succeeded by his son Edwin. Last independent Old English King of Northumbria.
867 Vikings gain control of the Kingdom of Northumbria (as loosely shown in the 1958 feature film, The Vikings). English ealdormen continue to rule Bernicia under Viking aegis while they directly control Deira. In or around 875 a Scandinavian monarchy is established, ending the necessity of an English puppet ruler.
? - 867 Osbert Also Osbrith, Osbyrht. Sub - king of Northumbria 848, he was deposed in 866. Together with his rival, Aella, he was defeated and slain by the Danes at York
867 - 873
Egbert I  
873 - 876
Ricsige / Ricsig Succeeded by Egbert II.
876 - 878 Egbert II He succeeded Ricsige as the last recorded king of Northumbria.
878
Egbert II is the last recorded English king of Northumbria, much of which comes under the rule of the Scandinavian kings of York. From there, they rule much of old Northumbria. From time to time the Kings of Wessex, under whose control fell the rest of England, push the Scandinavians out of York and rule a partially united country. The High Reeves of Bamburgh may have started by laying a quiet claim to the Northumbrian crown, but continued to serve in their lesser capacity until 1041.
? - 913 Eadwulf Claimant to the throne. High Reeve of Bamburgh.

 


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