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Royalty in the Middle Ages

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The Royals
Ruler Reign In Brief
Henry III
Henry III
© Dean and Chapter of Westminster
1216-1272

Henry III, King John's son, was only nine when he became king. By 1227, when he assumed power from his regent, order had been restored, based on his acceptance of Magna Carta.

Edward I
(Longshanks)
Edward I
The Royal Collection © 2004, Her Majesty
Queen Elizabeth II
1272-1307 Born in June 1239 and named by his father Henry III after the last Anglo Saxon king (and his father's favourite saint), Edward the Confessor.
Edward II
Edward II
The Royal Collection © 2004, Her Majesty
Queen Elizabeth II
1307-1327

Edward II had few of the qualities that made a successful medieval king. Edward surrounded himself with favourites. Throughout his reign, different baronial groups struggled to gain power and control the King.

Edward III
Edward III
The Royal Collection © 2004, Her Majesty
Queen Elizabeth II
1327-1377

Edward III was 14 when he was crowned King and assumed government in his own right in 1330. In 1337, Edward created the Duchy of Cornwall to provide the heir to the throne with an independent income.

Richard IIRichard II
© Dean and Chapter of Westminster/Royal Collection
1377-99

RICHARD II (r. )

Edward III's son, the Black Prince, died in 1376. The king's grandson, Richard II, succeeded to the throne aged 10, on Edward's death.

In 1381 the Peasants' Revolt broke out and Richard, aged 14, bravely rode out to meet the rebels at Smithfield, London.

Henry IV
Henry IV
The Royal Collection © 2004, Her Majesty
Queen Elizabeth II
1399-1413

Henry IV spent much of the early part of his reign fighting to keep control of his lands.

Henry V
Henry V
The Royal Collection © 2004, Her Majesty
Queen Elizabeth II
1413-1422

Soon after his accession, Henry V laid claim to the French crown. Stern and ruthless, Henry was a brilliant general who had gained military experience in his teens, when he fought alongside his father at the battle of Shrewsbury.

Henry VI
Henry VI
The Royal Collection © 2004, Her Majesty
Queen Elizabeth II
1422-1461
and
1470-1471

Born at Windsor Castle, Henry VI succeeded to the thrones of England and France before the age of one, when his father Henry V and his grandfather Charles VI of France died within months of each other.

Edward IV

Edward IV
The Royal Collection © 2004, Her Majesty
Queen Elizabeth II
1461-1470
and
1471-1483
Edward IV was able to restore order, despite the temporary return to the throne of Henry VI (reigned 1470-71), during which time Edward fled to the Continent.
Edward V
Edward V
The Royal Collection © 2004, Her Majesty
Queen Elizabeth II
April-June 1483

Edward V was a minor, so his uncle Richard, Duke of Gloucester, was made Protector. Richard had been loyal throughout to his brother Edward IV including the events of 1470-71.

Richard III

Richard III
The Royal Collection © 2004, Her Majesty
Queen Elizabeth II
1483-1485 Usurped the throne from the young Edward V, who disappeared with his younger brother.
Sourced from the Official Web Site of the British Monarchy

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A very special thanks to Hull Local Studies Library for their help with our research projects.